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OSE5203 - Geometrical Optics

Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics, Geometrical Theory of Image Formation, Optical System Layout, Radiometry. 


Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics, Geometrical Theory of Image Formation, Radiometry, Aberrations, Optical System Layout, Topics covered in the lectures will include: foundations of geometrical optics, Gaussian Optics, geometrical theory of image formation, basic optical devices and instruments, radiometry and flux transfer in imaging systems, introduction to aberration theory, image evaluation/analysis. 

Credit Hours:

  • 3 hours


  • Graduate standing or consent of instructor

Course Material:

  • P. Mouroulis and J. MacDonald, “Geometrical Optics and Optical Design” Oxford University Press 1997. (Highly Recommended)
  • Class notes

List of Topics:

  • The Foundations of Geometrical Optics
    • Waves, wave fronts, and rays
    • Propagation of wave fronts, reflection, refraction
    • Fermat’s principle
    • Irradiance and the inverse-square law
    • The basic postulates of geometrical optics
  • Elementary Ray Optics
    • Plane surfaces
    • Curved surfaces: focusing
  • Imagery by a Single Surface and a Thin Lens
    • The sign convention
    • The paraxial approximation
    • Imagery by a single surface
    • Imagery by a thin lens
    • Imagery of an extended object
    • Magnification: the angular size of an object, visual magnification, longitudinal magnification.
    • Imagery of a volume
  • Gaussian Optics
    • The paraxial height and angle variables
    • Paraxial ray tracing for systems of many surfaces
    • Principal planes
    • Thick lenses: power and location of principal planes
    • Nodal points, measurement of focal length
  • Stops and Pupils
    • Marginal and pupil rays
    • Optical invariant
    • Numerical aperture and number
    • Depth of focus and depth of field
    • Field of view
  • ABCD Matrix Transformation
    • Matrix formulation for refraction and for translation
    • The conjugate matrix
    • Object and image planes
    • Principal planes and back and front focal plans
    • System stop and entrance and exit pupils
  • Radiometry and Photometry
    • Light flux transmission through optical systems
    • Solid angle and projected area
    • Radiant flus, irradiance, radiance, Lambertian sources
    • Radiometry of imaging systems
    • Extended sources, distant sources
  • Real ray tracing
    • Meridional and skew rays
    • Ray transfer from between spherical surfaces,
    • Refraction of a general ray
  • Aberrations
    • Chromatic aberration
    • Introduction to monochromatic aberrations
    • The wave aberration function and classification of aberration
    • The Seidel aberration coefficients
    • Astigmatism and field curvature
    • Primary aberrations of a reflecting prism (plane parallel plates)
    • Primary aberrations of a spherical mirror
    • Central aberrations (stop at the lens)
    • Thin lens aberration with a remote stop
  • Gaussian Optics of Optical Instruments and Components
    • The telescope, the microscope, Projection Systems, the Eye
    • Reflecting prisms, Cylindrical and anamorphic optics, Gradient index optics